There is general consensus among researchers that there are five basic emotions.
Anger, Fear, Sadness, Disgust & Enjoyment
Understanding our emotions is an important part of good mental health. Below is a diagrammatic representation of the five basic emotions, which contains different words to describe the varying intensity of feelings in these five domains. All emotions vary in intensity, and we use language to help describe and construct our inner experiences of emotions. The diagram below can be useful in helping people to describe their feelings.
Emotions also have a physiological component, each emotion is experienced differently within the body.
Being able to name and describe emotions provides us with the capacity to begin to understand ourselves and our reactions. It is an important part of the capacity to reflect. Understanding our own emotions also enables us to begin to understand the emotional experience of others, which is crucial to the ability to empathise and mentalize (Fonagy) which is essential part of healthy relationships.
Emotions have important functions or meanings. Anger can be an indications that something is wrong, something has been lost and so on. However, they can also be misleading at times, and the work of therapy can sometimes be making more balanced interpretations of our emotions.
Regardless of how you might name emotions, it can be useful to understand that they are on a continuum and have a physiological component.
Here is an image that explains graphically